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States of matter for SQA National 5 Physics

States of matter

This page covers the following topics:

1. Changes of state

The state of a material can be changed by adding or removing energy. Solids can be melted into liquids when heated, which in turn will evaporate into gas. Condensation will occur when a gas is cooled into a liquid, which in turn will freeze into a solid. Sublimation is when a solid becomes a gas when heated, without becoming a liquid first. A heating or cooling curve is a graph that shows the temperature of a material against the energy it has absorbed. When a material is changing state, the curve will flatten out, since the temperature will stay the same until the change of state has finished.

Changes of state

1

Label the given cooling curve.

A: gas. B: condensation. C: liquid. D: freezing. E: solid.

Label the given cooling curve.

2

A liquid undergoes freezing. Explain what this means.

Energy is removed from the liquid, which freezes it into a solid.

A liquid undergoes freezing. Explain what this means.

3

Moisture in the air will turn into small droplets of morning dew on grass during the night. Explain what this process is.

During the night, the moisture in the air will be cooled down, thus energy will be removed from it, which will cause condensation. Moisture is a gas and through condensation, it will be turned into liquid droplets on grass.

Moisture in the air will turn into small droplets of morning dew on grass during the night. Explain what this process is.

4

Explain what melting is.

Melting occurs when energy is provided to a solid which is turned into a liquid.

Explain what melting is.

5

Sketch the heating curve of Hโ‚‚O.

image

Sketch the heating curve of Hโ‚‚O.

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