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Visible light is a spectrum of colours found in the electromagnetic spectrum. In increasing frequency, it is made up of: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet. Each colour has its own small range of wavelength/frequency.
Light falling onto an object is either reflected or absorbed. The colour of an object that appears to be opaque can be found by determining the wavelength of the light it reflects, since this reflected light is what is detected by the human eye. If it reflects all wavelengths, then the object is white, whereas if it absorbs all wavelengths, then it is black.
Specular reflection occurs when light is reflected off of a smooth flat surface in only one direction. This is the type of reflection that occurs in a mirror, giving rise to an image in it which is upright and virtual. Diffuse reflection occurs when light is reflected off of a rough surface, scattering the light in many different directions. This could cause a distorted image of the object.
When light passes through a colour filter, some of it is absorbed and some is transmitted. The colour filter allows for the light rays which have the same colour with it to go through and absorbs the rest of all other colours. When white lights passes through a filter, all colours are absorbed except for the colour of the filter, which goes through.
Transparent objects are ones that trasmit light with very little absorption, allowing the light rays to go straight through. Translucent objects are ones that transmit some light but are not completely clear, due to some ongoing absorption. The light that is let to pass through a translucent object is randomly scattered.
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