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SQA Higher Maths Recurrence relations

Recurrence relations

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A recurrence relationship can be used to generate all the terms of a sequence. It describes each term as a function of the previous term.

Recurrence relationships

The Newton-Raphson method uses tangent lines to find approximations of roots of equations in the form f(x) = 0. A value for xβ‚€ is chosen and a tangent at that point is drawn. The next x value is taken to be the point at which the tangent intersects the x-axis. This process is continued to find increasingly accurate approximations of the root.

Graphical representation of Netwon-Raphson method

The Newton-Raphson formula can be used to calculate increasingly accurate approximations of a root, given a starting value. If the starting value is chosen to be a turning point, the formula cannot be used, since its derivative will be 0 and division by 0 in the formula will not be possible. If the starting value is chosen to be near a turning point, the gradient will be small, therefore the tangent will intersect the x-axis a long way away from the starting value, and therefore the Newton-Raphson method may fail.

Newton-Raphson method

The Newton-Raphson method can be used to model situations and find their solutions.

Newton-Raphson method problems in context

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The recurrence relationship of a sequence is given by u_(n+1) = 100 βˆ’ u_n, where u₁ = 18. Calculate the next three terms of the sequence.

SQA Higher Maths Recurrence relations The recurrence relationship of a sequence is given by u_(n+1) = 100 βˆ’ u_n, where u₁ = 18. Calculate the next three terms of the sequence.
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2

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Find the first term of the sequence given by the recurrence relationship u_(n + 1) = 15u_n + 3, where uβ‚‚ = 33.

SQA Higher Maths Recurrence relations Find the first term of the sequence given by the recurrence relationship u_(n + 1) = 15u_n + 3, where uβ‚‚ = 33.
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