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3D vectors are added by adding their corresponding coordinates or by connecting them “head to toe”.
To subtract 3D vectors, reverse the direction of the vector that is subtracted or subtract corresponding coordinates.
Two vectors can be multiplied by using a dot product, which can be obtained by multiplying corresponding coordinates and adding the results up. Alternatively, cosine value of an angle between the vectors may be used.
2D Pythagoras’ theorem can be modified to obtain the magnitude of a 3D vector. The final equation is M = √(a² + b² + c²).
Vectors are perpendicular if cosΘ = 0.
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