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Periodic table for SQA National 5 Chemistry

Periodic table

This page covers the following topics:

1. Periodic table structure
2. Electronic structure

There are specific names used for some groups of the periodic table:
group 0/8 (18) โ†’ noble gases
group 1 โ†’ alkali metals
group 7 (17) โ†’ halogens

Elements in the same group have similar properties since they have the same number of electrons in their outer shell. For groups 1-2 and 3-8 it is the same as the group number. For example, phosphorus has 5 electrons in its outer shell. If you use a periodic table with 1-18 group numbers, you should convert groups 13-18 to 3-8 respectively as the aforementioned rule doesnโ€™t necessarily apply for the groups 3-12.

As you go down a group, the elements get bigger as they gain additional shells of electrons.

Periodic table structure

The electronic structure is the way in which electrons are arranged in an atom. Electrons in atom are arranged in shells (or energy levels) surrounding the nucleus. For many atoms, the electrons in an atom occupy the shell nearest the nucleus first, until it is full.

The first shell can contain 2 electrons. For elements up to and including calcium, the second and third shells can contain 8 electrons. Their electronic structure can be written as a numbers x, y, z, where x represents the number of electrons in the first shell, y in the second and z in the third.

Each electron shell corresponds to an energy level. For example, electrons that are in the second electron shell are in the second energy level.

Electronic structure

1

What is the electronic structure of sodium which has 11 protons?

The electrons in an atom occupy the shell nearest the nucleus first, until it is full. The first shell can contain 2 electrons. For elements up to and including calcium, the second and third shells can contain 8 electrons.

Sodium has 11 electrons as it has 11 protons.
Allocating these 11 electrons into the first few electron shells gives 2, 8, 1.

2, 8, 1

What is the electronic structure of sodium which has 11 protons?

2

Which element has the electronic structure shown in the picture?

Electronic structure 2, 8, 4 means that the element has 2 + 8 + 4 = 14 electrons.
The number of electrons and the atomic number match for atoms.
Thus, the atomic number of the element is 14 and it is silicon.

silicon

Which element has the electronic structure shown in the picture?

3

What is the name of group 1 of the periodic table?

Group 1 of the period table is called alkali metals.

alkali metals

What is the name of group 1 of the periodic table?

4

What is the order electron shells fill up: lowest to highest, highest to lowest or in a different order?

Electron shells fill lowest energy levels first, then higher ones.

lowest to highest

What is the order electron shells fill up: lowest to highest, highest to lowest or in a different order?

5

Name 3 smallest halogens.

Since going down a group the atomic radius increases, we should pick the top 3 halogens; fluorine, chlorine, bromine.

fluorine, chlorine, bromine

Name 3 smallest halogens.

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