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SQA National 5 Chemistry Crude Oil

Crude Oil

This page covers the following topics:

1. What is crude oil
2. Fractional distillation
3. Physical properties of fractions
4. Uses of crude oil

Crude oil is made up of decayed organisms (mostly plankton) that died millions of years ago and became buried within the Earth's crust. It is a hydrocarbon mixture used as a source for fuels and plastics.

What is crude oil

Fractional distillation is a method to separate crude oil into 'fractions' depending on the length of the hydrocarbon chains. It is very hot at the bottom and becomes cooler to the top to condense fractions at different points.

Fractional distillation

Going up the fractional distillation column the temperature decreases so fractions have lower condensation points. Using this information you can infer the other properties of the fractions.

Physical properties of fractions

Crude oil has a variety of applications in industry and everyday life.

Uses of crude oil

1

What is the name given to the fraction that doesn't move up in the chamber at all and is still liquid at 350 ΒΊC?

What is the name given to the fraction that doesn't move up in the chamber at all and is still liquid at 350 ΒΊC?

2

What name is given to the fraction that doesn't condense in fractional distillation?

What name is given to the fraction that doesn't condense in fractional distillation?

3

What is chemical feedstock?

What is chemical feedstock?

4

Why are smaller fractions usually more useful than longer chain fractions?

Why are smaller fractions usually more useful than longer chain fractions?

5

What state are most fractions extracted in?

What state are most fractions extracted in?

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