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SQA Higher Chemistry Electronic structure

Electronic structure

This page covers the following topics:

1. Electronic configuration

Electron shells in an atom are made up of atomic orbitals, which are regions around the nucleus that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins. There are s, p and d orbitals, each with a different shape. Here are all available orbitals for the first 4 energy levels:
1st β†’ 1s
2nd β†’ 2s 2p
3rd β†’ 3s 3p 3d
4th β†’ 4s 4p 4d 4f

The other 3 energy levels have a similar pattern to the 4th energy level. The fact that particular shells exist in a level doesn’t mean that they will be filled for an element in a corresponding period. For example, d-orbitals that are found in 3rd level will only start to be filled for 4th period elements as there are no d-block elements in period 3. s orbital exits alone, p orbitals in groups of 3, d in groups of 5 and f in groups of 7. Each orbital can fit 2 electrons.

Shells fill up in order s β†’ p β†’ d β†’ f by going through each element from hydrogen to the element of interest and assigning them to corresponding orbitals. An electron configuration is written by using the aforementioned templates for the energy levels and by including superscript letters representing the number of electrons in each orbital. For example, calcium would have an electronic configuration of 1sΒ² 2sΒ² 2p⁢ 3sΒ² 3p⁢ 4sΒ².

Electronic configuration

1

Which element has the electronic configuration of 1s² 2s² 2p⁢ 3s² 3p²?

Which element has the electronic configuration of 1s² 2s² 2p⁢ 3s² 3p²?

2

What is the electronic configuration of the atom shown in the diagram?

What is the electronic configuration of the atom shown in the diagram?

3

Which element has the electronic configuration 1s² 2s² 2p⁴?

Which element has the electronic configuration 1s² 2s² 2p⁴?

4

What is the electronic configuration of chlorine?

What is the electronic configuration of chlorine?

5

Provide the electronic configuration for sodium.

Provide the electronic configuration for sodium.

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