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Alkaline earth metals for SQA Higher Chemistry

Alkaline earth metals

This page covers the following topics:

1. Trends of alkaline earth metals

The elements in group 2 are known as the alkaline earth metals. As you move down the group of the periodic table, additional shells of electrons are added that increase the atomic radius.

As the atomic radius decreases, the nucleus has a tighter hold on its electrons, so more energy is required to remove them. Therefore, the ionisation energy of alkaline earth metals decreases going down a group.

Melting point decreases going down group 2 of the periodic table as metallic bonds are weaker for larger elements and less energy is required to break them. Magnesium is an exception, with an unusually low melting point.

Trends of alkaline earth metals

1

Would calcium, strontium or barium have the lowest melting point out of these metals?

The melting point of alkaline earth metals decreases going down the group. Thus, the element that is in the lowest position of group 2 in the periodic table would have the lowest melting point, that is, barium.

barium

Would calcium, strontium or barium have the lowest melting point out of these metals?

2

Would magnesium, calcium or strontium have the lowest ionisation energy out of these metals?

As the atomic radius decreases, the nucleus has a tighter hold on its electrons, so more energy is required to remove them. Therefore, the ionisation energy of alkaline earth metals decreases going down a group and alkaline earth metal that has the lowest ionisation energy out of the elements provided is strontium.

strontium

Would magnesium, calcium or strontium have the lowest ionisation energy out of these metals?

3

Why does the atomic radius increase as you go down group 2 of the periodic table?

As you go down a group, the atomic radius of atoms gets bigger as they gain additional shells of electrons.

additional shells of electrons

Why does the atomic radius increase as you go down group 2 of the periodic table?

4

Which alkaline earth metal has the largest ionisation energy?

As the atomic radius decreases, the nucleus has a tighter hold on its electrons, so more energy is required to remove them. Therefore, the ionisation energy of alkaline earth metals decreases going down a group and alkaline earth metal that has the largest ionisation energy is beryllium.

beryllium

Which alkaline earth metal has the largest ionisation energy?

5

Which alkaline earth metal has the largest atomic radius?

The atomic radius of alkaline earth metals increases going down the group of the periodic table. Thus, the alkaline earth metal that has the largest atomic radius is radium.

radium

Which alkaline earth metal has the largest atomic radius?

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