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Acids and alkalis for SQA Higher Chemistry

Acids and alkalis

This page covers the following topics:

1. Carboxylic acids

Carboxylic acids are weak organic acids that end with โˆ’COOH. In the homologous series of carboxylic acids there are multiple short- and long-chain molecules:
โ€ข COOH โ†’ methanoic acid
โ€ข CHโ‚ƒCOOH โ†’ ethanoic acid (vinegar)
โ€ข CHโ‚ƒCHโ‚‚COOH โ†’ propanoic acid
โ€ข CHโ‚ƒCHโ‚‚CHโ‚‚COOH โ†’ butanoic acid

Carboxylic acids dissolve well (especially the shorter ones) in water and have relatively high melting and boiling points due to intermolecular forces called hydrogen bonding. Carboxylic acids have a variety of uses, such as household cleaning products (vinegar) and pharmaceuticals.

Carboxylic acids

1

What is a molecular formula of butanoic acid?

CHโ‚ƒCHโ‚‚CHโ‚‚COOH is a formula for butanoic acid. To convert it to a molecular formula, we add up all atoms of each kind in it.

Cโ‚„Hโ‚ˆOโ‚‚

What is a molecular formula of butanoic acid?

2

Name this compound: CHโ‚ƒCOOH.

CHโ‚ƒCOOH is a formula of ethanoic acid.

ethanoic acid

Name this compound: CHโ‚ƒCOOH.

3

Provide an application of vinegar.

Due to being easily derived from organic compounds, carboxylic acids have a variety of uses, such as household cleaning products (vinegar) and pharmaceuticals.

household cleaning products

Provide an application of vinegar.

4

Name the compound presented in the image.

CHโ‚ƒCHโ‚‚COOH is a formula of propanoic acid.

propanoic acid

Name the compound presented in the image.

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