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OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations

Separations

This page covers the following topics:

Filtration is a technique used to separate a mixture of insoluble solids and liquid. It expoloits the size difference between the two by passing the mixture over a surface with lots of tiny holes. The smaller liquid molecules can pass through but the larger solid particles cannot, separating them.

Filtration

Crystallisation is the formation of crystals from a saturated solution, it allows the separation of a dissolved solid from its liquid. The solution is slowly heated until all the liquid evaporates, left behind is the solid, precipitated as highly organised crystals.

Crystallisation

Distillation is a technique which separates a mixture of liquids by their boiling point. As the mixture is heated, the liquid with the lowest boiling point will evaporate and travel up the glassware. When it reach the cold environment of the distillation column, the gas will condense and be collected as pure liquid. This is repeated until all the liquids are separated.

Distillation

Liquid chromatography is a technique which separates liquids and solutions by their affinity to two distinct phases, the mobile phase and stationary phase. The stationary phase is usually a solid which remains unmoved throughout the experiment. The mobile phase is usually a liquid or a gas that moves over and through the stationary phase, carrying different compounds with it. The extent a compound travels depends on its affinity for the mobile phase, a high affinity substance will move further.

Chromatography

There are lots of separation techniques and it's important to know which work best to separate certain mixtures. Filtration works for insolible solid/liquid mixtures. Crystallisation is best for separating dissolved solids from a liquid. Distillation separates a mixture of liquids, with preferably low and distinct boiling points. Chromatography can be used to separate a mixture of gases, liquids or solutions.

Separating mixtures

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Vacuum filtration is another separation technique that's widely used. Suggest whether vacuum filtration or normal filtration is more efficient, explain your reasoning.

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations Vacuum filtration is another separation technique that's widely used. Suggest whether vacuum filtration or normal filtration is more efficient, explain your reasoning.
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What is the filtrate?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations What is the filtrate?
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What is a saturated solution?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations What is a saturated solution?
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Sketch and label the set up for a crystallisation experiment.

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations Sketch and label the set up for a crystallisation experiment.
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Which apparatus is indicated by the arrow in this picture?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations Which apparatus is indicated by the arrow in this picture?
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6

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Can distillation be used to separate a mixture of salts?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations Can distillation be used to separate a mixture of salts?
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7

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What is the purpose of the stopper?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations What is the purpose of the stopper?
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Suggest why a hot plate is used to heat up the mixture rather than a bunsen burner.

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations Suggest why a hot plate is used to heat up the mixture rather than a bunsen burner.
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9

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What is the mobile phase?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations What is the mobile phase?
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10

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This is a chromatogram of blue pen ink, which colour has the greatest affinity for the stationary phase?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations This is a chromatogram of blue pen ink, which colour has the greatest affinity for the stationary phase?
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11

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What technique would you use to separate a mixture of sand and water?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations What technique would you use to separate a mixture of sand and water?
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12

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How would you separate oil and water in an emulsion?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations How would you separate oil and water in an emulsion?
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13

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What technique would you use to separate this mixture?

OCR GCSE Chemistry Separations What technique would you use to separate this mixture?
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