There are three common types of bonding which hold atoms together. Ionic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between a positive metal ion and a negative non-metal ion. Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between two non-metal atoms. Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between two metal ions and their delocalised electrons.
Ionic bonds form between a metal cation and a non-metal anion. The metal transfers electrons to the non-metal, forming oppositiely charged ions. The electrostatic attraction between these two ions creates an ionic bond, which can be depicted using a dot-and-cross diagram.
Covalent bonds are the strongest of the three interatomic bonds. They arise from the sharing of a pair of electrons between two non-metal atoms, as shown in the dot-and-cross diagram
Metallic bonding arises from the electrostatic attraction between positive metal cations and negative delocalised electrons.
Dative covalent bonding involves the sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms, but the electrons both originate from the same atom. The dative covalent bond is usually depicted as an arrow, illustrating where the shared electrons originate from.
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