Reactions occur due to the collision of different types of molecules which must have enough energy to react with one another, this is called collision theory. The frequency and energy level of these collisions is what determines rate of reaction.
The frequency of successful collisions can be influenced by many factors such as temperature, pressure and concentration of reactants.
The frequency of successful collisions can also be influenced by surface area (of solid reactants) and state of matter (solid/liquid/gas) of the reactants.
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