This page covers the following topics:
1. Metals and nonmetals
2. Periodic table blocks
Where an element is found in the periodic table can tell you a lot about its physical and chemical properties. Most elements are metals except for the top right corner of the periodic table and hydrogen. In between metals and nonmetals we can find metaloids that have properties similar to both metals and non-metals.
Since the group an element is in indicates how many electrons are in the outer shell, it can be used to determine the ionic charge. Metals usually form positive ions with the charge of their group number and a plus (+). Nonmetals usually form negative charges with their charge being their group number minus 8.
Each period consists of sublevels that can be filled with a certain number of electrons. To illustrate this, the periodic table can be split into blocks, s, p, d and f. The block and period an element is found in shows which sublevel the valence electrons are stored in. For example, the valence electrons of phosphorus are in 3s and 3p sublevels.
Aluminium would have valence electrons in sublevel 3p, with an electron configuration of 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p¹. A shorthand way to write the electron configuration is starting from the noble gas before, e.g. [Ne] 3s² 3p¹ for aluminium.
Which element has a shorthand electron configuration of [Ar] 4s² 3d³?
Argon has an electron configuration of 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p⁶, which includes 18 electrons. If we add the additional 5 electrons from 4s² 3d³, we get 23 electrons in total. Vanadium atoms each have 23 electrons since the atomic number of vanadium is 23.
Explain why boron isn’t considered a nonmetal.
In between metals and non-metals we can find metaloids that have properties similar to both metals and nonmetals. Boron is a metaloid and isn't a nonmetal as it has some similar properties to metals.
similar properties to metals
What is the most probable charge a phosphorus ion would have?
Phosphorus is in group 5, thus its atoms each have 5 electrons in their outer shells. Since phosphorus is a nonmetal we have to subtract 8 from the number of valence electrons to get its most probable ionic charge: 5 − 8 = 3−.
Which element has a shorthand electron configuration of [Kr] 5s¹ 3d¹⁰?
Krypton has an electron configuration of 1s² 2s² 2p⁶ 3s² 3p⁶ 4s² 3d¹⁰ 4p⁶, which includes 36 electrons. If we add the additional 11 electrons from 5s¹ 3d¹⁰, we get 47 electrons in total. Silver atoms each have 47 electrons since the atomic number of silver is 47.
Which sublevel are the valence electrons of strontium stored in?
Strontium is in s-block of the periodic table and in period 5.
Thus, the valence shells of strontium are in 5s sublevel.
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