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Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure

Intermolecular structure

This page covers the following topics:

Permanent dipole interactions occur between permanent dipoles with regions of both positive and negative partial charges. They arise from electronegative atoms like oxygen, nitrogen and the halogens.

Permanent dipole interactions

London dispersion forces, also known as van der Waals dispersion forces, are intermolecular interactions which arise due to temporary fluctuating dipoles. When molecules get close to one another, these temporary dipoles become induced dipoles, with δ⁺ attracting δ⁻, resulting in an intermolecular interaction. Individually they're weak, but their strength increases with number.

London dispersion forces

Hydrogen bonding is the strongest intermolecular interaction. It occurs between polarised hydrogen atoms and electronegative atoms.

Hydrogen bonding

Intermolecular interactions are weak in comparison to the strength of interatomic bonds, but collectively they contribute greatly to the physical properties of a molecule (ie. boiling point).

Strength of intermolecular forces

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Why does propanone have a higher boiling point than propane?

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure Why does propanone have a higher boiling point than propane?
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Which intermolecular interaction is stronger, van der Waals or permanent dipole-dipole?

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure Which intermolecular interaction is stronger, van der Waals or permanent dipole-dipole?
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London dispersion forces are only present in polar molecules. True or False?

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure London dispersion forces are only present in polar molecules. True or False?
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4

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Why does phosphorus have a lower melting point than sulphur?

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure Why does phosphorus have a lower melting point than sulphur?
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5

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Why does ethanal have a higher boiling point than ethane?

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure Why does ethanal have a higher boiling point than ethane?
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Which electronegative atoms can be involved in hydrogen bonding?

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure Which electronegative atoms can be involved in hydrogen bonding?
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7

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Which is the strongest intermolecular interaction, hydrogen bonding, London dispersion forces or permanent dipole interactions?

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure Which is the strongest intermolecular interaction, hydrogen bonding, London dispersion forces or permanent dipole interactions?
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8

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Hydrogen bonding enables base pairing in DNA. Which nucleotide bases are complimentary to each other?

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure Hydrogen bonding enables base pairing in DNA. Which nucleotide bases are complimentary to each other?
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9

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Why are permanent dipole interactions stronger than London dispersion forces?

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure Why are permanent dipole interactions stronger than London dispersion forces?
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10

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Explain the trend in boiling point seen in this graph.

Edexcel A-level Chemistry Intermolecular structure Explain the trend in boiling point seen in this graph.
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